Here you can find articles about variants in the canonical readings of the Quran. Differences between Hafs and Warsh Qurans are relatively well known, but looking wider at other canonical readings, they become more problematic. Beyond the scope of this site, there were also thousands of pre-Uthmanic variants and other non-canonical variants, which persisted for centuries. Further resources

A unique feature of dialogue variants is that when they differ substantially in meaning, they cannot be reconciled by the usual (and often strained) reasoning that both readings are valid. Either one thing could have been said on that occasion by the character or another, not both.

A large number of variants do not convey any additional meaning (though exegetes sometimes try). Human poets may typically vary their recitations in such ways, though they also bring with them the usual cost of looking like human errors or changes creeping into the transmission.

During the perfect preservation of the Quran controversy that blew up in 2020, academics shared their insights into a range of questions.

This article addresses a number of popular claims that crop up frequently. The real problems with the concept of perfect Quran preservation and variants are listed at the end.

A brief article on the limiting of canonical transmissions and the addition of the three readings after the seven to the canon.